GIS Based Groundwater Quality Assessment in Tuticorin District Tamilnadu, India

Ramesh Pandian R., Sashik Kumar M.C.

Abstract


Groundwater is widely distributed than surface water and is used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purpose throughout the world. More than 95% of rural population depends on groundwater for all needs. Rapid increase in urbanization and industrialization leads in to deterioration in groundwater quality. In many coastal towns or cities, groundwater seems to be the only source of fresh water to meet domestic, agricultural and industrial needs. But groundwater is under constant threat of saline water incursion, which seems to have become a worldwide concern. Mapping of spatial variability of groundwater quality is of vital importance and it is particularly significant where groundwater is primary source of potable water. In the present study, a detailed investigation was carried out to analyze the spatial variability of groundwater quality for the coastal region of Tuticorin District. Geographical Information System (GIS) based spatial analysis technique has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent the distribution of major ions in the study area. The major water quality parameters such as pH, Electrical conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Bicarbonate, Chloride and Sulphate etc. were analyzed. The spatial variation maps of these groundwater quality parameters were derived and integrated through GIS. The final integrated map shows three priority classes such as High, Moderate and Poor groundwater quality zones of the study area and provides a guideline for the suitability of groundwater for domestic purposes.

Keywords


GIS, Surface Water, Groundwater, Spatial Variation, Water Quality, Coastal Region

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