Spatio-Dynamics of Surface Water Characteristics in Delta State, Nigeria

Onosemuode Christopher


This study is anchored on the analytical determination of surface water characteristics in Delta State, Nigeria. It is a common place that most settlements situated along the river banks depend on the surface water for domestic purposes, source of domestic, agricultural, industrial wastes and sewage disposal, storm run of from urban landscape and other forms of waste that find their way from unidentified sources into the rivers. These various sources of wastes make it difficult for the rivers to maintain high level of hygienic water. It is on this premise that this study seeks to analysis the surface water characteristics of 8 major rivers in Delta State, Nigeria to determine the physico-chemical, heavy metals and microbiological parameters in line with WHO and FMENV standards. The sampling of the rivers were carried out during the rainy and dry seasons, with three samples from each river being collected at three different locations along the course of the river (the upstream, midstream and downstream) for both seasons and the analyzed results of the three samples for each river were averaged and used as basis of discussion. The results showed that E.Coli, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton that have been found to be present in some of the surface water being depended upon for source of drinking water have made the water from these surface water sources unfit for drinking and an indication that pathogens of intestinal origin of cholera, typhoid gastroenteritis etc are most likely to affect the health of those consuming the water from this sample point. The presence of Lead that could cause cancer, interfere with vitamin D metabolism, Copper that could cause gastrointestinal disorder, Nickel that could cause carcinogenic problems, Cadmium, Ammonia and Arsenic are a major concern to the health of those depending on these sources for domestic purpose.


Surface Water; Characteristics; Pollution; Physico-Chemical; Heavy Metal; Microbial

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