Evaluation of Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in Virudhunagar District, India

Joseph Daniel, S. Karuppasamy

Abstract


The prevalence of fluoride is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to find out the fluoride contamination areas to adopt remedial measures to the people on the risk of fluorosis. The groundwater fluoride causes by rock water interaction. The occurrence of dental fluorosis among the people in the Virudhunagar district provides the motivation to investigate occurrence of fluoride in groundwater. The objective of the study is to find out the spatial distribution of fluoride in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period using GIS and remote sensing. The fluoride concentration in groundwater varies from 0.2 mg/l to 1.6mg/l in pre-monsoon and 0.1mg/l to 1.9mg/l in post-monsoon. The overall distribution of fluoride concentration in the study area during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods indicates slight dilution effect owing to fresh water recharge on account of rain fall. Exposure of fluoride among different age group was calculated in this study area. From the results, the fluoride concentration was identified to be 33% in pre-monsoon period and 25% in post-monsoon period in Virudunagar district, Kavalur, Rajapalayam, Srivilliputtur, Vembakottai, and Watrap blocks were highly affected, but the neighboring blocks are free from excess fluoride contamination in drinking water. It has been recommended to the government authorities to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low fluoride concern for the fluorosis affected areas.

 


Keywords


GIS, Remote Sensing, Fluoride

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